Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) of first polar bodies (1PBs) has been used in carriers of balanced chromosomal reorganizations and also for aneuploidy screening. Although an acceptable number of normal or balanced embryos is usually obtained using PGD in translocation carriers, the pregnancy rate is disappointingly low. To determine whether aneuploidy of chromosomes not involved in the chromosome rearrangements could be the cause of the low pregnancy rates achieved, the present authors analysed the segregation products of three translocation carriers, t(8;13)(q24.1;q22) and two Robertsonian (Rob)(13;14), using 1PBs, and afterwards another eight chromosomes in the same 1PBs, for a total of 10 chromosomes in each 1PB, that is chromosomes 1, 8, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 21, 22 and X. In the reciprocal translocation, chromosomes with different chromatids due to meiotic recombination were found. Only one out of nine 1PBs was normal for the reorganization products but no aneuploidies were found after PGD in this case. In the two balanced Rob(13;14), six out of 12 and four out of 11 1PBs were normal or balanced for the reorganization but only one oocyte was euploid for all the chromosomes analysed in each case; a single embryo transfer was made in both but no pregnancy was achieved. The incidence of aneuploidy for the chromosomes not involved in the Robertsonian translocations was extremely high (91.7% and 81.8%). Extra chromosomes were present in most of the aneuploid oocytes (81.8% and 90%). The reason for this increase could be the tendency to non-disjunction related to advanced maternal age combined with an interchromosomal effect resulting in the presence of synaptic errors in other chromosome pairs.