Background. Microelectrode technology is a promising tool for monitoring kidney ischemia and the changes induced by its therapeutic management. Ischemic preconditioning, that is, brief ischemic periods before sustained ischemia, has been shown to protect several organs, including the kidney, from ischemia-reperfusion injury. We tested whether the effect of preconditioning could be appraised by real-time measurement of parameters representative of tissue hypoxia. Methods. In a sample of pentobarbital-anesthetized and mechanically ventilated rats, we studied the effect of renal ischemic preconditioning (10-min ischemia and 10-min reflow interval) on subsequent ischemia-reperfusion (45 min and 60 min). Renal tissue electrical impedance, extracellular pH, and potassium concentration [K+] were measured continuously by implanted microelectrodes. Results. Ischemia induced an early, rapid rise in extracellular potassium and impedance module, followed by a phase of slower increase, whereas pH decreased rapidly, reaching a plateau. Preconditioning treatment did not cause significant changes in interstitial pH and [K+] but increased ischemic tissue impedance. During reperfusion, the three variables recovered progressively; however, after a decline, electrical impedance showed a clear postischemic increase. This rise was suppressed by preconditioning. Conclusions. Real-time measurement of any of the three parameters showed capability for early detection of ischemia. In contrast with findings in myocardial tissue, preconditioning in the kidney did not increase potassium cell loss during ischemia or improve ischemic acidosis or tissue impedance. Electrical impedance increased for a second time during reperfusion, indicating the presence of a postischemic cellular edema; concealing this episode was the most noticeable effect of the preconditioning treatment.