Multifunctional nanovesicle-bioactive conjugates prepared by a one-step scalable method using CO2-expanded solvents

Ingrid Cabrera, Elisa Elizondo, Olga Esteban, José Luis Corchero, Marta Melgarejo, Daniel Pulido, Alba Córdoba, Evelyn Moreno, Ugutz Unzueta, Esther Vazquez, Ibane Abasolo, Simó Schwartz, Antonio Villaverde, Fernando Albericio, Miriam Royo, Maria F. García-Parajo, Nora Ventosa*, Jaume Veciana

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

41 Citations (Scopus)


The integration of therapeutic biomolecules, such as proteins and peptides, in nanovesicles is a widely used strategy to improve their stability and efficacy. However, the translation of these promising nanotherapeutics to clinical tests is still challenged by the complexity involved in the preparation of functional nanovesicles and their reproducibility, scalability, and cost production. Here we introduce a simple one-step methodology based on the use of CO2-expanded solvents to prepare multifunctional nanovesicle- bioactive conjugates. We demonstrate high vesicle-to-vesicle homogeneity in terms of size and lamellarity, batch-to-batch consistency, and reproducibility upon scaling-up. Importantly, the procedure is readily amenable to the integration/encapsulation of multiple components into the nanovesicles in a single step and yields sufficient quantities for clinical research. The simplicity, reproducibility, and scalability render this one-step fabrication process ideal for the rapid and low-cost translation of nanomedicine candidates from the bench to the clinic. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3766-3774
Number of pages9
JournalNano Letters
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 14 Aug 2013


  • Compressed fluids
  • bioconjugates
  • liposomes
  • nanomedicine
  • nanovesicles
  • scale-up
  • supercritical fluids


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