MOTEMO-OUTDOOR: ensuring learning and health security during the COVID-19 pandemic through outdoor and online environments in higher education

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UNLABELLED: The restriction measures put in place during the COVID-19 pandemic posed notable challenges for formal teaching-learning processes because they had to be adapted to ensure health security. An active learning programme applied to three environments (indoors, outdoors, and online) was tested with 273 undergraduate university students in a within-subjects experimental study. Each student was assigned to two indoor and two outdoor seminars, with a subsample ( n  = 30) also participating in online seminars implemented in response to the university's lockdown protocols. The learning experience and learning conditions were evaluated through six dimensions: learning, evaluative impact, hedonic experience, technical conditions, environmental conditions, and health security. Outdoor seminars were more effective than indoor seminars in terms of the learning experience, with greater differences in hedonic experience, while the indoor seminars were rated more highly than the outdoor seminars in terms of learning conditions, with a larger difference in the environmental conditions. No differences were found between online and face-to-face environments in terms of the learning experience, even though the online environment yielded better scores in the learning conditions. Apparently, this adaptation to both outdoor and online contexts through active methodologies allows overcoming of technical, environmental, and teaching limitations and improves health security, while ensuring a good learning experience and added flexibility to teaching-learning processes.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10984-023-09456-y.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-19
Number of pages19
JournalLearning Environments Research
Early online date9 Feb 2023
Publication statusPublished - 9 Feb 2023


  • Face-to-face learning
  • Higher education
  • Informal learning
  • Outdoor learning
  • Pandemic
  • Student engagement
  • e-learning


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