Monitoring bluetongue disease (BTV-1) epidemic in southern Spain during 2007

A. Allepuz, I. García-Bocanegra, S. Napp, J. Casal, A. Arenas, M. Saez, M. A. González

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Abstract

On the 25th of July 2007, bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 1 was detected in Andalusia, southern Spain for the first time. A total of 4436 farms infected with BTV-1 were confirmed during that year: 3162 in sheep flocks, 113 in goat flocks, 7 in cattle herds and 1154 in mixed farms (sheep, goat and/or cattle in the same farm). The most common clinical signs were: fever, depression, lethargy, facial edema, and salivation (observed in more than 70% of the infected farms). Lesions in oral mucosa, lameness and dyspnea were also frequently observed.Median morbidity rate in sheep and goat flocks were 6.3% and 2.7% respectively. Median mortality rate was 2.2% in sheep flocks and 1.2% in goat flocks. Median case fatality rate was 29.8% in sheep flocks and 45% in goat flocks. Morbidity and mortality rates were not significantly higher in sheep flocks than in goat flocks (p>0.05), whereas case fatality rate was significant higher in goat flocks compared to sheep flocks (p<0.05). Neither clinical signs nor mortality were observed in cattle herds.The spatial distribution of the risk of BTV infection over Andalusia by municipality was evaluated by means of a hierarchical Bayesian model. The results evidenced that the risk was not homogeneous over the territory, being higher in the western part of the region. The likelihood of BTV infection was increased between 1.01 and 1.16 times by an increase of 10,000 domestic ruminants, and between 1.01 and 1.69 times by the presence of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the municipality. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)263-271
JournalPreventive Veterinary Medicine
Volume96
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2010

Keywords

  • Bluetongue
  • Descriptive epidemiology
  • Disease mapping
  • Serotype 1
  • Spain

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