© 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica The application of genotyping tools allowed us to discriminate between the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates obtained in the laboratory. The differentiation between single strains opened the door to molecular epidemiology studies, which had helped us to progress in our knowledge of how this pathogen is transmitted in the progressively more complex socio-epidemiological scenario. The genetic stability of this microorganism led to develop specific methodologies, which are thoroughly revised in this chapter. In addition to their application in epidemiology, we review, how they can offer a response to different diagnostic and clinical challenges. Finally, we focus on describing the novel genomic revolution we are experiencing in the analysis of tuberculosis, the methodology in which it is based and the novel possibilities it offers, including new routes of integrating both the molecular and genomic languages in innovative post-genomic proposals, better suited to our real-life context.
- Molecular epidemiology