© 2019 Elsevier B.V. Aggregated LDL is the first ligand reported to interact with the cluster II CR9 domain of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1). In particular, the C-terminal half of domain CR9, comprising the region Gly 1127 -Cys 1140 exclusively recognizes aggregated LDL and it is crucial for aggregated LDL binding. Our aim was to study the effect of the sequence Gly 1127 -Cys 1140 (named peptide LP3 and its retro-enantio version, named peptide DP3)on the structural characteristics of sphingomyelinase- (SMase)and phospholipase 2 (PLA 2 )-modified LDL particles. Turbidimetry, gel filtration chromatography (GFC)and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM)analysis showed that LP3 and DP3 peptides strongly inhibited SMase- and PLA 2 -induced LDL aggregation. Nondenaturing polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis (GGE), agarose gel electrophoresis and high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC)indicated that LP3 and DP3 prevented SMase-induced alterations in LDL particle size, electric charge and phospholipid content, respectively, but not those induced by PLA 2 . Western blot analysis showed that LP3 and DP3 counteracted changes in ApoB-100 conformation induced by the two enzymes. LDL proteomics (LDL trypsin digestion followed by mass spectroscopy)and computational modeling methods evidenced that peptides preserve ApoB-100 conformation due to their electrostatic interactions with a basic region of ApoB-100. These results demonstrate that LRP1-derived peptides are protective against LDL aggregation, even in conditions of extreme lipolysis, through their capacity to bind to ApoB-100 regions critical for ApoB-100 conformational preservation. These results suggests that these LRP1(CR9)derived peptides could be promising tools to prevent LDL aggregation induced by the main proteolytic enzymes acting in the arterial intima.
- Lipoprotein aggregation
- LRP1-derived peptides
- SMase, PLA , atherosclerosis 2