Childhood cancers differ greatly from adult malignancies owing to their different etiology, biology, response to treatment and outcome. While adult tumors are mostly of epithelial origin and linked to a sustained exposure to environmental carcinogenic agents, pediatric malignancies tend to be of hematologic, mesenchymal or nervous system origin and their etiology is often unknown. Despite the small number of cases of childhood versus adult cancers, great advances have been made in treatment protocols in the last three decades. However, cancer remains the second cause of childhood mortality. Metastatic disease and acquired resistance to therapy continue to pose two major challenges for long-term cure. However, alternatives to classical chemo- and radiotherapy are emerging. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous non-coding RNAs that interfere with the translation and stability of coding messenger RNAs in a sequence-specific manner. In recent years, miRNAs have been found to be deregulated in a number of adult and pediatric malignancies and their restoration opens up an attractive new therapeutic approach. This chapter will review the discovery of miRNAs that can be therapeutic targets for the most prevalent pediatric solid tumors.
|Original language||American English|
|Title of host publication||MicroRNA Targeted Cancer Therapy|
|Publisher||Springer International Publishing AG|
|Number of pages||25|
|ISBN (Print)||3319051334, 9783319051338|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Feb 2014|