microRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators in eukaryotes that target mRNAs repressing their expression. The uncertain process of pig domestication, with different origin focuses, and the selection process that commercial breeds suffered, have generated a wide spectrum of breeds with clear genetic and phenotypic variability. The aim of this work was to define the miRNAs expression profile in kidney of several porcine breeds. Small RNA libraries from kidney were elaborated and high-throughput sequenced with the 454 Genome Sequencer FLX (Roche). Pigs used were classified into three groups: the European origin group (Iberian breed and European Wild Boar ancestor), European commercial breeds (Landrace, Large White and Piétrain breeds) and breeds with Asian origin (Meishan and Vietnamese breeds). A total of 229 miRNAs were described in the pig kidney miRNA profile, including 110 miRNAs out of the 257 previously described pig miRNAs and 119 orthologous miRNAs. The most expressed miRNAs in pig kidney microRNAome were Hsa-miR-200b-3p, Ssc-miR-125b and Ssc-miR-23b. Moreover, 5 novel porcine miRNAs and 3 orthologous miRNAs could be validated through RT-qPCR. miRNA sequence variation was determined in 116 miRNAs, evidencing the presence of isomiRs. 125 miRNAs were differentially expressed between breed groups. The identification of breed-specific miRNAs, which could be potentially associated to certain phenotypes, is becoming a new tool for the study of the genetic variability underlying complex traits and furthermore, it adds a new layer of complexity to the interesting process of pig evolution. © 2013 Timoneda et al.