Micronuclei frequency in urothelial cells of bladder cancer patients, as a biomarker of prognosis

Felicidad Espinoza, Lluis Cecchini, Juan Morote, Ricard Marcos, Susana Pastor

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9 Citations (Scopus)


© 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. It has been suggested that the frequency of micronuclei (MN) in defoliated urothelial cells could be used as a biomarker for both the potential risk of bladder cancer (BC) and its progression. To prove this we have carried out a large study evaluating the MN frequency in a group of 383 hospital patients submitted to cystoscopy. From them, 77 were negative in their first cystoscopy, and were considered as a reference group; 79 were positive and were classified as patients with tumor; and 227 with previous bladder cancer submitted to follow-up monitoring were negative and classified as BC patients without tumor. Vesical washes were processed and the obtained cells were placed onto microscope slides for further scoring. To minimize scoring misinterpretations, cells were stained with DAPI, and observed in a fluorescence microscope. Results indicated that patients with BC presented higher incidence of MN than controls (18.29 ± 10.04 vs. 14.40 ± 8.49, P = 0.010, respectively). When individuals with BC were classified depending on whether the BC was a primary or a recidivated tumor, those patients with recurrent BC presented a higher frequency of MN than those where BC was detected for the first time (19.22 ± 9.59 vs. 16.60 ± 10.78, respectively); nevertheless, this increase did not reach statistical significance. Finally, a positive and significant correlation was observed between MN frequency and the degree of the tumor (P = 0.038). All this together would confirm the potentiality of the MN frequency in urothelial defoliated cells assay to be used, at least, in the follow-up and surveillance of BC patients. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 60: 168–173, 2019. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)168-173
Number of pages6
JournalEnvironmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2019


  • bladder cancer
  • cystoscopy
  • micronucleus
  • urothelial cells


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