The role of MT (metallothionein) gene expression was investigated in rotenone-treated HeLa cells to induce a deficiency of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I). Complex I deficiency leads to a diversity of cellular consequences, including production of ROS (reactive oxygen species) and apoptosis. HeLa cells were titrated with rotenone, resulting in dose-dependent decrease in complex I activity and elevated ROS production at activities lower than 33%. Expression of MT2A (MT isoform 2A), but not MT1A or MT1B RNA, was significantly inducible by rotenone (up to 7-fold), t-BHP (t-butyl hydroperoxide; 5-fold) and CdCl2 (50-fold), but not ZnCl2. Myxothiazol treatment did not elevate either ROS or MT2A levels, which supports a ROS-related mechanism for rotenone-induced MT2A expression. To evaluate the role of MT2A expression, MT2A and MT1B were over-expressed in HeLa cells and treated with rotenone. Compared with control and MT1B-overexpressing cells, ROS production was significantly lower and cell viability higher in MT2A-over-expressing HeLa cells when ROS production was enhanced by treatment with t-BHP. Mitochondrial membrane potential was noticeably less reduced in both MT-overexpressing cell lines. MT2A overexpression in rotenone-treated cells also significantly reduced or delayed apoptosis induction, as measured by caspase 3/7 activity and cytosolic nucleosome enrichment. We conclude that MT2A offers significant protection against the main death-causing consequences of rotenone-induced complex I deficiency in HeLa cells. Our results are in support of the protective role against oxidative stress ascribed to MTs and provide evidence that MT2A expression may be a beneficial downstream adaptive response in complex I-deficient cells. © 2006 Biochemical Society.
- NADH: Ubiquinone oxidoreductase
- Reactive oxygen species (ROS)