Since the seminal discoveries of Bert Vallee regarding zinc and metallothioneins (MTs) more than 50 years ago, thousands of studies have been published concerning this fascinating story. One of the most active areas of research is the involvement of these proteins in the inflammatory response in general, and in neuroinflammation in particular. We describe the general aspects of the inflammatory response, highlighting the essential role of the major cytokine interleukin-6, and review briefly the expression and function of MTs in the central nervous system in the context of neuroinflammation. Particular attention is paid to the Tg2576 Alzheimer disease mouse model and the preliminary results obtained in mice into which human Zn 7MT-2A was injected, which suggest a reversal of the behavioral deficits while enhancing amyloid plaque load and gliosis. © SBIC 2011.