Measuring intellectual ability in cerebral palsy: The comparison of three tests and their neuroimaging correlates

Júlia Ballester-Plané, Olga Laporta-Hoyos, Alfons Macaya, Pilar Póo, Mar Meléndez-Plumed, Élida Vázquez, Ignacio Delgado, Leire Zubiaurre-Elorza, Ana Narberhaus, Esther Toro-Tamargo, Maria Eugenia Russi, Violeta Tenorio, Dolors Segarra, Roser Pueyo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Standard intelligence scales require both verbal and manipulative responses, making it difficult to use in cerebral palsy and leading to underestimate their actual performance. This study aims to compare three intelligence tests suitable for the heterogeneity of cerebral palsy in order to identify which one(s) could be more appropriate to use. Forty-four subjects with bilateral dyskinetic cerebral palsy (26 male, mean age 23 years) conducted the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM), the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-3rd (PPVT-III) and the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV). Furthermore, a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and magnetic resonance imaging were assessed. The results show that PPVT-III gives limited information on cognitive performance and brain correlates, getting lower intelligence quotient scores. The WNV provides similar outcomes as RCPM, but cases with severe motor impairment were unable to perform it. Finally, the RCPM gives more comprehensive information on cognitive performance, comprising not only visual but also verbal functions. It is also sensitive to the structural state of the brain, being related to basal ganglia, thalamus and white matter areas such as superior longitudinal fasciculus. So, the RCPM may be considered a standardized easy-to-administer tool with great potential in both clinical and research fields of bilateral cerebral palsy.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)83-98
JournalResearch in Developmental Disabilities
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2016


  • Cerebral palsy
  • Intelligence tests
  • Neuroimaging
  • Neuropsychology
  • Raven's coloured progressive matrices
  • Voxel-based morphometry


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