Meal enjoyment and tolerance in women and men

Hugo Monrroy, Teodora Pribic, Carmen Galan, Adoracion Nieto, Nuria Amigo, Anna Accarino, Xavier Correig, Fernando Azpiroz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearch

11 Citations (Scopus)


© 2019, MDPI AG. All rights reserved. Various conditioning factors influence the sensory response to a meal (inducible factors). We hypothesized that inherent characteristics of the eater (constitutive factors) also play a role. The aim of this proof-of-concept study was to determine the role of gender, as an individual constitutive factor, on the meal-related experience. Randomized parallel trial in 10 women and 10 men, comparing the sensations before, during, and after stepwise ingestion of a comfort meal up to full satiation. Comparisons were performed by repeated Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) measures. During stepwise ingestion, satisfaction initially increased up to a peak, and later decreased down to a nadir at the point of full satiation. Interestingly, the amount of food consumed at the well-being peak was lower, and induced significantly less fullness in women than in men. Hence, men required a larger meal load and stronger homeostatic sensations to achieve satisfaction. The same pattern was observed at the level of full satiation: men ate more and still experienced positive well-being, whereas in women, well-being scores dropped below pre-meal level. The effect of gender on the ingestion experience suggests that other constitutive factors of the eater may also influence responses to meals.
Original languageEnglish
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019


  • Gender differences
  • Hedonic response
  • Homeostatic sensations
  • Meal ingestion
  • Metabolomic response
  • Post-prandial sensations


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