The Japan Agency for Marine Earth Science and Technology conducted in 2003-2004 the Blue Earth Global Expedition (BEAGLE2003) around the Southern Hemisphere Oceans, which was a rare opportunity to collect many seawater samples for anthropogenic radionuclide studies. We describe here sampling and analytical methodologies based on radiochemical separations of Cs and Pu from seawater, as well as radiometric and mass spectrometry measurements. Several laboratories took part in radionuclide analyses using different techniques. The intercomparison exercises and analyses of certified reference materials showed a reasonable agreement between the participating laboratories. The obtained data on the distribution of 137Cs and plutonium isotopes in seawater represent the most comprehensive results available for the Southern Hemisphere Oceans. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.