Management implications of earwigs' overwintering sites in a Mediterranean citrus grove

Carla Romeu-Dalmau, Xavier Espadaler, Josep Piñol

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


© 2016 Taylor & Francis. To promote earwigs as natural enemies of pests, or to control their populations if they damage crops, earwigs can be managed during their overwintering period on the ground. Here, we obtained more than a ton of soil to study earwigs' overwintering sites in a citrus grove. We found four species of earwigs: Forficula pubescens, Euborellia annulipes, Euborellia moesta, and Nala lividipes. Surprisingly, and although the European earwig Forficula auricularia is abundant in the citrus canopies the rest of the year, we did not find any F. auricularia, indicating that this species spends the winter outside the citrus grove. Therefore, farmers willing to manage European earwig populations in citrus orchards need to consider the possibility that earwigs may spend the winter outside the field. Earwigs that were overwintering in the citrus grove were more abundant at the south side beneath the canopies than at the north side or between rows, indicating that management practices such as soil tillage can impact overwintering earwigs only beneath the canopies, but not between citrus rows. Overall, our results provide insights into how earwig populations can be successfully managed during winter in citrus orchards.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)129-134
JournalInternational Journal of Pest Management
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2 Apr 2016


  • Euborelliasp
  • Forficula auricularia
  • Forficula pubescens
  • Nala lividipes
  • Soil tillage
  • stable isotopic analyses


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