© 2019 Elsevier B.V. Cancer-associated dermatomyositis provides a unique opportunity to explore the relationship between autoimmunity and cancer. In this review, we describe the related epidemiological issues, considering the various currently accepted myositis phenotypes, their link with cancer, and the possible mechanisms leading to this relationship. We discuss current evidence regarding the role of molecular mimicry, somatic DNA tumor mutations, and the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in the association between cancer and myositis. We also review tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes as a relevant factor to be evaluated in cancer-associated myositis, their interaction with tumor neoantigens, and the tumor mutational burden, all of which have implications for the treatment of these patients with immunotherapy. Finally, we discuss clinical scenarios related to the relationship between cancer and myositis, delineating a comprehensive theory linking autoimmunity and cancer.
- Molecular mimicry
- PD-1/PD-L1 tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes