© 2017 López-Meseguer et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Background: Real use of lung (LT) and heart-lung (HLT) transplantation in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is unknown. The objectives were to describe the indication of these procedures on PAH treatment in a national cohort of PAH patients, and to analyze the potential improvement of its indication in severe patients. Methods: Eligibility for LT/HLT was assessed for each deceased patient. Incident patients from REHAP diagnosed between January 2007 and March 2015 and considered eligible for LT/ HLT were grouped as follows: those who finally underwent transplantation (LTP) and those who died (D-Non-LT). Findings: Of 1391 patients included in REHAP, 36 (3%) were LTP and 375 (27%) died. Among those who died, 36 (3%) were D-Non-LT. LTP and D-Non-LT were equal in terms of age, gender, and clinical status. Ten percent of those who died were functional class I-II. Patients functional class IV were less likely to undergo LT (8.3% LTP vs. 30.6% D-Non-LT, p = 0.017). Patients with idiopathic and drug/toxin-associated PAH were more likely to undergo LT (44.4% LTP vs. 16.7% D-Non-LT, p = 0.011). Conclusions: The present results show that the use of LT/HLT could double for this indication. Relevant mortality in early functional class reflects the difficulties in establishing the risk of death in PAH.
López-Meseguer, M., Quezada, C. A., Ramon, M. A., Lázaro, M., Dos, L., Lara, A., López, R., Blanco, I., Escribano, P., & Roman, A. (2017). Lung and heart-lung transplantation in pulmonary arterial hypertension. PLoS ONE, 12(11), [e0187811]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0187811