© 2018 The Author(s). TLR sensing of pathogens triggers monocyte activation to initiate the host innate immune response to infection. Monocytes can dynamically adapt to different TLR agonists inducing different patterns of inflammatory response, and the sequence of exposure to TLRs can dramatically modulate cell activation. Understanding the interactions between TLR signalling that lead to synergy, priming and tolerance to TLR agonists may help explain how prior infections and inflammatory conditioning can regulate the innate immune response to subsequent infections. Our goal was to investigate the role of MyD88-independent/dependent TLR priming on modulating the monocyte response to LPS exposure. We stimulated human blood monocytes with agonists for TLR4 (LPS), TLR3 (poly(I:C)) and TLR7/8 (R848) and subsequently challenged them to low doses of endotoxin. The different TLR agonists promoted distinct inflammatory signatures in monocytes. Upon subsequent LPS challenge, LPS- and R848-primed monocytes did not enhance the previous response, whereas poly(I:C)-primed monocytes exhibited a significant inflammatory response concomitant with a sharp reduction on cell viability. Our results show that TLR3-primed monocytes are prompted to cell death by apoptosis in the presence of low endotoxin levels, concurrent with the production of high levels of TNFα and IL6. Of note, blocking of TNFR I/II in those monocytes did reduce TNFα production but did not abrogate cell death. Instead, direct signalling through TLR4 was responsible of such effect. Collectively, our study provides new insights on the effects of cross-priming and synergism between TLR3 and TLR4, identifying the selective induction of apoptosis as a strategy for TLR-mediated host innate response.
|Journal||Cell Death and Disease|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Jan 2018|