Background: Conventional amphotericin B (c-AmB) remains the empirical antifungal treatment of choice for neutropenic patients with persistent fever of unknown origin (FUO). Unfortunately, empirical treatment with c-AmB is hampered by its safety profile, with frequent infusion-related adverse events (IRAEs) and renal toxicity. Amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC) has been investigated for this indication due to its low toxicity profile. The recommended dose of ABLC is 5 mg/kg/d, which is five to seven times higher than the recommended dose of c-AmB. Methods: This randomized, controlled trial includes 105 adult patients with hematologic malignancies and with FUO after receiving chemotherapy or autologous stem cell transplantation. Patients were randomly allocated to receive ABLC at 1 mg/kg/d or c-AmB at 0.6 mg/kg/d for empirical antifungal therapy. Results: The incidence of renal toxicity was significantly lower in the ABLC group, compared with c-AmB group: 8% vs. 32%, respectively (P = 0.003). The rates of IRAEs were similar in both groups (73% for ABLC vs. 77% for c-AmB). The overall response rate was 72% for ABLC compared with 48% for C-AmB (P = 0.018). This difference was mainly due to the significantly higher renal toxicity in the c-AmB group. The number of emergent fungal infections and overall mortality were similar in both groups. Conclusions: This randomized trial suggests that ABLC at 1 mg/kg/d produces less nephrotoxicity than c-AmB, without differences in the incidence of IRAEs and with similar efficacy. © Blackwell Munksgaard 2004.
|Journal||European Journal of Haematology|
|Publication status||Published - 1 May 2004|
- Amphotericin B
- Antifungal therapy
- Hematologic malignancy
- Neutropenic fever