Localized electrochemical deposition of porous Cu-Ni microcolumns: Insights into the growth mechanisms and the mechanical performance

E. Pellicer, S. Pané, V. Panagiotopoulou, S. Fusco, K. M. Sivaraman, S. Suriñach, M. D. Baró, B. J. Nelson, J. Sort

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22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Cu-rich Cu-Ni alloy microcolumns (11-35 at% Ni) with large porosity degree were grown by localized electrochemical deposition (LECD) at voltages of 6.5 and 7.0 V. In turn, conventional electrodeposition was used to deposit fully-compact Cu-Ni films with analogous Ni/Cu ratios from a similar citrate-containing electrolytic solution. The localized supply rate of the predominant Cu(II) and Ni(II) electroactive species in the LECD microregion was calculated assuming both large and small concentration gradients. A shortage of Cu(II) at the cathode surface is mainly responsible for the development of porosity in the microcolumns, which directly affects mechanical performance, specifically nanoindentation hardness and Young's modulus. From nanoindentation experiments, a relative microcolumn density ranging between 14 and 20% was determined. These values indicate the current efficiency of the LECD process and can be used to calculate the consumption rates associated with metal cation electroreduction. © 2012 by ESG.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4014-4029
JournalInternational Journal of Electrochemical Science
Volume7
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jul 2012

Keywords

  • Cu-Ni alloy
  • Hardness
  • Localized electrochemical deposition
  • Nanoindentation
  • Porosity

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