Cytomegalovirus (CMV) develops in 30-80% of patients undergoing solid organ transplantation (SOT). The incidence and presence of symptomatic disease varies depending on the type of transplant, the presence of associated risk factors, the intensity of immunosuppression, and the prevention strategies used. The impact of CMV on SOT is due not only to the effects of CMV disease per se, but also to its multiple indirect effects resulting from its immunomodulatory role and immunoactivation caused by viral latency. The two prophylactic strategies used (universal prophylaxis and preemptive therapy) are equally useful. Both strategies have advantages and disadvantages, and uncertainties remain on the populations that should receive prophylaxis and for how long. Viral monitoring to detect CMV infection is important for diagnosis, prognosis and evaluation of treatment response. The new real-time polymerase chain reaction techniques have provided numerous advantages but standardization remains an issue and common reference values are required. Specific anti-CMV drugs are available but issues such as the role of valganciclovir versus ganciclovir, the development of resistances and optimal treatment length are still being debated. Complementary therapy with mTOR inhibitors and vaccine strategies against CMV are alternatives for which conclusive data are lacking. © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
- Antiviral agents
- Solid organ transplantation