Levels of Growth Differentiation Factor 15 and Early Mortality Risk Stratification in Cardiogenic Shock

M. A.R.I. HONGISTO, A. N.U. KATAJA, TUUKKA TARVASMÄKI, A. N.U. HOLOPAINEN, T. JAVANAINEN, R. JURKKO, T. O.N.I. JÄNTTI, ANTOINE KIMMOUN, B. LEVY, ALEXANDRE MEBAZAA, K. A.R.I. PULKKI, ALESSANDRO SIONIS, H. E.L.I. TOLPPANEN, K. C. WOLLERT, VELI E.L.I.P.E.K.K.A. HARJOLA, J. LASSUS

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    2 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    © 2019 Elsevier Inc. Background: The aim of this study was to assess the levels, kinetics, and prognostic value of growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) in cardiogenic shock (CS). Methods and Results: Levels of GDF-15 were determined in serial plasma samples (0–120 h) from 177 CS patients in the CardShock study. Kinetics of GDF-15, its association with 90-day mortality, and incremental value for risk stratification were assessed. The median GDF-150h level was 9647 ng/L (IQR 4500–19,270 ng/L) and levels above median were significantly associated with acidosis, hyperlactatemia, renal dysfunction, and higher 90-day mortality (56% vs 28%, P < .001). Serial sampling showed that non-survivors had significantly higher GDF-15 levels at all time points (P < .001 for all). Furthermore, non-survivors displayed increasing and survivors declining GDF-15 levels during the first days in CS. Higher levels of GDF-15 were independently associated with mortality. A GDF-1512h cutoff >7000 ng/L was identified as a strong predictor of death (OR 5.0; 95% CI 1.9–3.8, P = .002). Adding GDF-1512h >7000 ng/L to the CardShock risk score improved discrimination and risk stratification for 90-day mortality. Conclusions: GDF-15 levels are highly elevated in CS and associated with markers of systemic hypoperfusion and end-organ dysfunction. GDF-15 helps to discriminate survivors from non-survivors very early in CS.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalJournal of Cardiac Failure
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019

    Keywords

    • biomarkers
    • Cardiogenic shock
    • growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15)
    • prognosis

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