Legal compliance by design (LCbD) and through design (LCtD): Preliminary survey

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The purpose of this paper is twofold: (i) carrying out a preliminary survey of the literature and research projects on Compliance by Design (CbD); and (ii) clarifying the double process of (a) extending business managing techniques to other regulatory fields, and (b) converging trends in legal theory, legal technology and Artificial Intelligence. The paper highlights the connections and differences we found across different domains and proposals. We distinguish three different policydriven types of CbD: (i) business, (ii) regulatory, (iii) and legal. The recent deployment of ethical views, and the implementation of general principles of privacy and data protection lead to the conclusion that, in order to appropriately define legal compliance, Compliance through Design (CtD) should be differentiated from CbD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)33-49
Number of pages17
JournalCEUR Workshop Proceedings
Publication statusPublished - 2018


  • Compliance by design
  • Compliance methodologies
  • Compliance survey
  • Legal compliance through design
  • Regulatory compliance


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