LDL phenotype B is a component of diabetic dyslipidaemia, but its diagnosis is cumbersome. Our aim was to find easily available markers of phenotype B in a group of type 2 diabetic subjects. We studied 123 type 2 diabetic patients (67.5% male, aged 59.3±10.1 years, mean HbAlc 7.4%). Clinical features and fasting total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol (LDLc, using Friedewald's equation and an alternative formula), apolipoprotein B (apoB), lipoprotein (a) and LDL particle size (on gradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) were assessed. Patients with phenotypes A (predominant LDL size ≥25.5 nm) and B (<25.5 nm) were compared, and regression analysis was performed to find the best markers of LDL particle. Cut-off points were obtained and evaluated as predictors of phenotype B (kappa index). Patients with phenotype B (36%) showed higher total cholesterol, triglyceride and apolipoprotein B, and lower HDL cholesterol and LDLc/apoB ratio. Triglyceride was the best predictor of LDL particle size (r=-0.632, p<0.01), but an LDLc/apoB ratio below 1.297 mmol/g detected phenotype B best (sensitivity 65.9%, specificity 92.4%, kappa=0.611). Although triglyceride concentration is the best predictor of LDL size in type 2 diabetes, LDLcholesterol/apolipoprotein B ratio is the best tool to detect phenotype B.
- LDL phenotype B
- LDL size
- LDL-cholesterol/apolipoprotein B ratio
- Type 2 diabetes