Recent analysis of clinical trials on estrogen therapy proposes the existence of a therapeutic window of opportunity for the cardiovascular benefits of estrogens, which depend on women's age and the onset of therapy initiation. In this study, we aimed to determine how vascular senescence and the onset of estrogen treatment influence the common carotid artery (CCA) function in senescent and non-senescent females. Ovariectomized female senescence-accelerated (SAMP8) or non-senescent (SAMR1) mice were treated with vehicle (OVX) or 17β-estradiol starting at the day of ovariectomy (early-onset, E2E) or 45 days after surgery (late-onset, E2L). In SAMR1, both treatments, E2E and E2L, reduced constriction to phenylephrine (Phe) in CCA [(AUC) OVX: 193.8 ± 15.5; E2E: 128.1 ± 11.6; E2L: 130.2 ± 15.8, p = 0.004] in association with positive regulation of NO/O2- ratio and increased prostacyclin production. In contrast, E2E treatment did not modify vasoconstrictor responses to Phe in OVX-SAMP8 and, yet, E2L increased Phe vasoconstriction [(AUC) OVX: 165.3 ± 10; E2E: 183.3 ± 11.1; E2L: 256.3 ± 30.4, p = 0.005]. Increased vasoconstriction in E2L-SAMP8 was associated with augmented thromboxane A2 and reduced NO production. Analysis of wild-type receptor alpha (ERα66) expression and its variants revealed an increased expression of ERα36 in E2L-SAMP8 in correlation with unfavorable effects of estrogen in those animals. In conclusion, estrogen exerts beneficial effects in non-senescent CCA, regardless of the initiation of the therapy. In senescent CCA, however, estrogen loses its beneficial action even when administered shortly after ovariectomy and may become detrimental when given late after ovariectomy. Aging and onset of estrogen treatment are two critical factors in the mechanism of action of this hormone in CCA.