Our objective was to study the presence of microchimerism in a series of 47 female Spanish patients with scleroderma (SSc) and to compare with a control group. Polymerase chain reaction was used to identify Y-chromosome sequences in DNA extracted from peripheral blood cells. Y-chromosome sequences were found in DNA from peripheral blood cells in four out of 47 (8.5%) patients with scleroderma (two limited and two diffuse) and in two out of 40 (5%) healthy women (no statistical differences were found). When we compared SSc patients and healthy controls who had had at least one male child, four out of 29 (13.7%) and two out of 26 (7.6%) had microchimerism respectively (no statistically significant differences were found). Patients with both scleroderma and persistent microchimerism had had a male offspring. Foetal microchimerism does not seem to play a major role in most cases of female Spanish patients with SSc.