Key Aspects of Donkey and Mule Reproduction

Igor Federico Canisso, Duccio Panzani, Jordi Miró, Robyn E. Ellerbrock

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleResearchpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


© 2019 Elsevier Inc. Donkeys are nonseasonal, polyestrous, territorial, and nonharem breeders. Although there are many similarities between horses and donkeys, there are also reproductive features that differ, from the longer cervix in the jenny to spermatogenic efficiency in the jack. Mules display reproductive cyclic activity but are rarely fertile. Frozen donkey semen has high pregnancy rates in mares, but lower rates in jennies. This article reviews key aspects of donkey and mule reproductive physiology, reproductive medicine, and assisted reproductive techniques that are useful for practitioners offering assisted reproductive techniques, and also for practitioners with the occasional client with a basic reproductive question.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)607-642
JournalVeterinary Clinics of North America - Equine Practice
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2019


  • Asinine
  • Assisted reproductive techniques
  • Equid reproduction
  • Equus asinus
  • Equus mulus
  • Mules
  • Reproductive pathology
  • Reproductive physiology


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