It takes two to code: a comparative analysis of collective bargaining and artificial intelligence

Oscar Molina*, Florian Butollo, Csaba Makó, Alejandro Godino, Ursula Holtgrewe, Anna Illsoe, Sander Junte, Trine Pernille Larsen, Miklós Illésy, Jószef Pap, Philip Wotschack

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


The extension of artificial intelligence (AI) and algorithmic management mechanisms by companies has led to growing trade union demands to regulate their use. This article explores the role of collective bargaining and employee participation mechanisms in regulating the use by companies of AI and algorithms. This is done through a comparative analysis of institutional developments at EU level, as well as in four countries with different industrial relations models (Denmark, Germany, Hungary and Spain). The article shows that there are remarkable differences between countries in the roles of social partners and in the combination of protective and participative mechanisms used to respond to the challenges of AI and algorithmic management. However, the analysis also serves to highlight the limits of existing institutions and practices to cope with the complexity of challenges associated with AI and algorithmic management. This calls for institutional adaptation and additional regulatory efforts at EU and national levels to support collective bargaining.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)87-104
Number of pages18
JournalTransfer: European Review of Labour and Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2023


  • Algorithmic management
  • artificial intelligence
  • collective bargaining
  • participation
  • trade unions


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