Ischemic aetiology, self-reported frailty, and gender with respect to cognitive impairment in chronic heart failure patients

María J. González-Moneo, Gonzalo Sánchez-Benavides, José M. Verdu-Rotellar, Mercé Cladellas, Jordi Bruguera, Sonia Quiñones-Ubeda, Cristina Enjuanes, Jordi Peña-Casanova, Josep Comín-Colet

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© 2016 The Author(s). Background: Decisive information on the parameters involved in cognitive impairment in patients with chronic heart failure is as yet lacking. Our aim was to determine the functional and psychosocial variables related with cognitive impairment using the mini-mental-state examination (MMSE) with age-and education-corrected scores. Methods: A cohort study of chronic heart failure patients included in an integrated multidisciplinary hospital/primary care program. The MMSE (corrected for age and education in the Spanish population) was administered at enrolment in the program. Analyses were performed in 525 patients. Demographic and clinical variables were collected. Comprehensive assessment included depression (Yesavage), family function (family APGAR), social network (Duke), dependence (Barthel Index), frailty (Barber), and comorbidities. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed to determine the predictors of cognitive impairment. Results: Cognitive impairment affected 145 patients (27.6 %). Explanatory factors were gender (OR: 2.77 (1.75-4.39) p < 0.001), ischemic etiology (OR: 1.99 (1.25-3.17) p = 0.004), frailty (OR: 1.58 (0.99 to 2.50, p =0.050), albumin > 3.5 (OR: 0.59 (0.35-0.99) p = 0.048), and beta-blocker treatment (OR: 0.36 (0.17 to 0.76, p = 0.007)). No association was found between cognitive impairment and social support or family function. Conclusion: The observed prevalence of cognitive impairment using MMSE corrected scores was 27.6 %. A global approach in the management of these patients is needed, especially focusing on women and patients with frailty, low albumin levels, and ischemic aetiology heart failure.
Original languageEnglish
Article number163
JournalBMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 30 Aug 2016


  • Cognitive symptoms
  • Comorbidity
  • Heart failure
  • Prevalence


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