Collectivist values, based on the ideas of egalitarian social compromise have been basic to the construction of the Welfare State, but today tend to break. Immigration and population heterogeneity thus hinder the identification of citizens with collective values. By contrast, emerging new values based on individual merit, which tends to generate a polarization of attitudes. For those profiles that have been the traditional working class, the social closure is a defence mechanism against competition for redistribution, which is reflected in negative views toward immigration. For those who make up the middle class, high level of education, high income and upper middle position, opinion on immigration and demand for solidarity is not a preferred option because they rely on the success of their individual trajectories.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)45-64
Number of pages20
JournalRevista Espanola de Investigaciones Sociologicas
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2016


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