Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type VII is a lysosomal storage disease caused by ß-glucuronidase deficiency, prompting glycosaminoglycan accumulation in enlarged vesicles, leading to peripheral and neuronal dysfunction. Here, we present a gene therapy strategy using lumbar puncture of AAVrh10 encoding human β-glucuronidase (AAVrh10-GUSB) to adult MPS VII mice. This minimally invasive technique efficiently delivers the recombinant vector to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with a single intrathecal injection. We show that AAVrh10 delivery to the CSF allows global, stable transduction of CNS structures. In addition, drainage of AAVrh10-GUSB from the CSF to the bloodstream resulted in the transduction of somatic organs such as liver, which provided a systemic β-glucuronidase source sufficient to achieve serum enzyme activity comparable to wild type mice. ß-glucuronidase levels were enough to correct biochemical and histopathological hallmarks of the disease in the CNS and somatic organs at short and long term. Moreover, the progression of the bone pathology was also reduced. Importantly, the biochemical correction led to a significant improvement in the physical, cognitive and emotional characteristics of MPS VII mice, and doubling their life span. Our strategy may have implications for gene therapy in patients with lysosomal storage diseases.