Intest

Franz Schwarzenberger, Catherine J Morrow, L M Penfold, B a Wolfe, G Aguilera, C Rabadan-Diehl, Nina Alexander, Yvonne Kuepper, Anja Schmitz, Roman Osinsky, Eva Kozyra, Juergen Hennig, N T Ashley, P S Barboza, B J Macbeth, D M Janz, M R L Cattet, Rebecca K Booth, Samuel K Wasser, Matthew R. BakerKathleen S. Gobush, Carly H. Vynne, Mar M Sanchez, Róisín Campbell-Palmer, Frank Rosell, Catherine E Barrett, Pamela M Noble, Erin Hanson, Daniel S Pine, James T Winslow, Elizabeth a Eric E Nelson, Marı́a-Gloria Basáñez, Clare Marshall, Hélène Carabin, Theresa Gyorkos, Lawrence Joseph, Carolyn M Bauer, Nicholas K Skaff, Andrew B Bernard, Jessica M Trevino, Jacqueline M Ho, L Michael Romero, Luis a Ebensperger, Loren D Hayes, T Ø Bechshøft, F F Rigét, C Sonne, R J Letcher, D C G Muir, Melinda a Novak, E Henchey, Jerrold S Meyer, I Eulaers, V L B Jaspers, M Eens, A Covaci, R Dietz, Verena Behringer, Tobias Deschner, Erich Möstl, Dieter Selzer, Gottfried Hohmann, A Bennett, V Hayssen, G Pazzaglia, S Widjaja, D Soebekti, P Tjaniadi, L Simanjuntak, M Lesmana, G Jennings, Michael Bredehöft, Rainer Baginski, Maria-Kristina Parr, Mario Thevis, Wilhelm Schänzer, Janine S L Joel S Brown, Sarah a. Budischak, Anna E. Jolles, Vanessa O. Ezenwa, Elizabeth a Burgess, Janet M Lanyon, Janine S L Joel S Brown, David Blyde, Tamara Keeley, Linda L Carpenter, Audrey R Tyrka, Nicole S Ross, Lamya Khoury, George M Anderson, Lawrence H Price, Eunice H Chin, James S Quinn, Gary Burness, Yuanting Choo, Peter Alan Todd, Daiqin Li, Fay E. Clark, Ros Clubb, Georgia Jane Mason, Francesco Arioli, Marco Fidani, Alessio Casati, Maria L Fracchiolla, Giuseppe Pompa, Jeremy D. Coplan, Chadi G Abdallah, Cheuk Y Tang, Sanjay J. Mathew, Jose Martinez, Patrick R Hof, Eric L.P. P Smith, Andrew J Dwork, Tarique D Perera, Gustavo Pantol, David Carpenter, Leonard a. Rosenblum, Dikoma C. Shungu, Joel Gelernter, Arie Kaffman, Andrea Jackowski, Joan Kaufman, Jack M. Gorman, Caroline M Coppens, Sietse F de Boer, Thierry Steimer, Jaap M Koolhaas, Andrea Danese, Bruce S McEwen, V de Lima, M Piles, O Rafel, M López-Béjar, J Ramón, A Velarde, A Dalmau, Heather B. DeCaluwe, Nadja C. Wielebnowski, JoGayle Howard, Katharine M. Pelican, Mary Ann Ottinger, Andrea C Dettling, Christian R Schnell, Claudia Maier, Joram Feldon, Christopher R Pryce, Amanda M Dettmer, Melinda a Novak, Stephen J Suomi, Jerrold S Meyer, Molly J Dickens, L Michael Romero, Kara R Douglas, Grace Chan, Joel Gelernter, Albert J Arias, Raymond F Anton, Roger D Weiss, Kathleen Brady, James Poling, Lindsay Farrer, Henry R Kranzler, Michelle L Drapkin, David Yusko, Carly Yasinski, David Oslin, Elizabeth a Hembree, Edna B Foa, Catherine J Morrow, Eric S Kolver, Gwyneth a Verkerk, Lindsay R Matthews, Bernet M Elzinga, Karin Roelofs, Marieke S Tollenaar, Patricia Bakvis, Johannes van Pelt, Philip Spinhoven, Veronika Engert, Simona I Efanov, Annie Duchesne, Susanne Vogel, Vincent Corbo, Jens C Pruessner, Eduardo J. Fernandez, Michael a. Tamborski, Sarah R. Pickens, William Timberlake, Nicolaas H Fourie, Robin M Bernstein, Götz Froeschke, Luther van der Mescht, Melodie McGeoch, Sonja Matthee, R Galuppi, J F C Leveque, V Beghelli, C Bonoli, M Mattioli, F Ostanello, M P Tampieri, P a Accorsi, Cheryl L Giddens, Kirk W Barron, Jennifer Byrd-Craven, Keith F Clark, a Scott Winter, William S Gilmer, William T McKinney, Stephanie S. Godfrey, Ricardo José Garcia Pereira, Bruna Furlan Polegato, Simone de Souza, João Alberto Negrão, José Maurício Barbanti Duarte, Sidra Goldman-Mellor, Mark Hamer, Andrew Steptoe, Andrea Gonzalez, Jennifer M Jenkins, Meir Steiner, Alison S Fleming, Derek B Goto, Hikota Miyazawa, Jessica C Mar, Masanao Sato, Megan R Gunnar, Kristin Frenn, Sandi S Wewerka, Mark J Van Ryzin, Anni Hämäläinen, Michael Heistermann, Zo Samuel, Ella Fenosoa, Zo Samuel Ella Fenosoa, Cornelia Kraus, Leonard a. Rosenblum, Jeremy D. Coplan, S Friedman, T Bassoff, Jack M. Gorman, M W Andrews, a M Cerone-McLernon, J Winter, E H Mosbach, V D Bokkenheuser, James Haven, Andrew William Park, Guy-Lucien S Whembolua, Douglas a Granger, Sarany Singer, Katie T Kivlighan, Jeffrey a Marguin, Lee Koren, Ofer Mokady, Tatyana Karaskov, Julia Klein, Gideon Koren, Eli Geffen, Stefan Hoby, Franz Schwarzenberger, Marcus G Doherr, Nadia Robert, Christian Walzer, Geoffrey R. Hosey, Jennifer a Howell-Stephens, David Bernier, Janine S L Joel S Brown, Diane Mulkerin, Rachel M Santymire, David Bernier, Diane Mulkerin, Rachel M Santymire, Jean-Pierre Hugot, Michel Baylac, Yasamin Kh Ibrahim, Lim Tze Tshen, Kira E Westaway, Earl Of Cranbrook, Louise Humphrey, Ros Fatihah Muhammad, Jian-Xin Zhao, Lee Chai Peng, Diana Armbruster, Anett Mueller, Alexander Strobel, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Burkhard Brocke, Clemens Kirschbaum, Cathy a Johnson-Delaney, S.D. Stephen D Johnston, J. Lever, R. McLeod, M. Oishi, E. Qualischefski, C. Omanga, M. Leitner, R. Price, L. Barker, K. Kamau, J. Gaughan, M. D'Occhio, E Curry, M a Stoops, Tania L Roth, Beate Kalz, Katarina Jewgenow, J. Fickel, Tamara Keeley, J K O'Brien, B G Fanson, K Masters, P D McGreevy, Riyad Khanfer, Douglas Carroll, Janet M Lord, Anna C Phillips, B Klar, B Sures, Simon R Knowles, Elizabeth a Eric E Nelson, Enzo a Palombo, H Koknaroglu, T Akunal, Peter N Laver, André Ganswindt, Stefanie B Ganswindt, Kathleen a Alexander, Trinidad Leon-Quinto, Miguel a Simon, Rafael Cadenas, Jonathan Jones, Francisco J Martinez-Hernandez, Juan M Moreno, Astrid Vargas, Fernando Martinez, Bernat Soria, Chunwang Li, Zhigang Jiang, Songhua Tang, Yan Zeng, Rodrigo Ligabue-Braun, Hugo Verli, Célia Regina Carlini, YAL Lim, R Ngui, J Shukri, William R Lovallo, C Ludwig, B Wachter, S Silinski-Mehr, André Ganswindt, H J Bertschinger, H Hofer, M Dehnhard, J.W. Lynch, M.Z. Khan, J. Altmann, M.N. Njahira, N. Rubenstein, Georgia Jane Mason, Ros Clubb, N. Latham, S. Vickery, Sanjay J. Mathew, Dikoma C. Shungu, Xiangling Mao, Eric L.P. P Smith, Gerald M. Perera, Lawrence S. Kegeles, Tarique D Perera, Sarah H. Lisanby, Leonard a. Rosenblum, Jack M. Gorman, Jeremy D. Coplan, P B McKenna, S Med, Lara C Metrione, John D Harder, Joshua J. Millspaugh, Brian E. Washburn, Elizabeth Moore, Claire Gaskin, Devon Indig, D. Moya, K.S. Schwartzkopf-Genswein, D.M. Veira, Edward J Narayan, John F Cockrem, Jean-marc Hero, Tempe Parnell, Giles Clark, Patrick Martin-Vegue, Al Mucci, Jean-marc Hero, Álvaro Navarro-Castilla, Isabel Barja, Pedro P. 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Stephen D Johnston, Mariana Stancheva Panayotova-pencheva, Karen J Parker, Dario Maestripieri, Wolfgang Goymann, Monika Trappschuh, Willi Jensen, Ingrid Schwabl, Lisa a Parr, Matthew Boudreau, Erin Hecht, James T Winslow, Charles B Nemeroff, Mar M Sánchez, Blaise Pierrehumbert, Raffaella Torrisi, Nathalie Glatz, Nevena Dimitrova, Markus Heinrichs, Olivier Halfon, María Pifarré, Ricardo Valdez, Carlos González-Rebeles, Carlos Vázquez, Marta Romano, Francisco Galindo, Anthony B Polito, David L Goldstein, Lylian Sanchez, David R Cool, Mariana Morris, Leslie K Taylor, Carl F Weems, Geertruida a Posthuma-Trumpie, Aart van Amerongen, Jakob Korf, Willem J H van Berkel, Christopher R Pryce, Daniela Rüedi-Bettschen, Andrea C Dettling, Anna Weston, Holger Russig, Boris Ferger, Joram Feldon, John C Frandsen, Sonia Cabezas, Julio Blas, Tracy a Marchant, Sacramento Moreno, Catherine a Dayger, Arianne J Cease, Deborah I Lutterschmidt, R Ghosal, R Sukumar, P B Seshagiri, Michelle Kutzler, Anna Wood, E Lodge, C Ross, S Ortmann, a M MacLarnon, Isabelle Ouellet-Morin, Candice L Odgers, Andrea Danese, Lucy Bowes, Sania Shakoor, Andrew S Papadopoulos, Avshalom Caspi, Terrie E Moffitt, Louise Arseneault, Rebecca Rimbach, Eckhard W Heymann, Andrés Link, Michael Heistermann, Tania L Roth, J David Sweatt, Small Ruminant, Mar M Sánchez, Pamela M Noble, Casie K Lyon, Paul M Plotsky, Michael Davis, Charles B Nemeroff, James T Winslow, Madeleine E. Hardus, Adriano R. Lameira, Steph B.J. J Menken, Serge a. Wich, David Shepherdson, Karen D. Lewis, Kathy Carlstead, Joan Bauman, Nancy Perrin, Michael J Sheriff, Charles J Krebs, Rudy Boonstra, Kathryn Shutt, Joanna M Setchell, Michael Heistermann, Andrew P Smith, L Somaini, C Donnini, M Manfredini, M a Raggi, M a Saracino, M L Gerra, M Amore, C Leonardi, G Serpelloni, G Gerra, Marek Špinka, Tobias Stalder, Clemens Kirschbaum, Michael E Steiper, Nathan D Wolfe, William B Karesh, Annelisa M Kilbourn, Edwin J Bosi, Maryellen Ruvolo, Nicole Strüber, Daniel Strüber, Gerhard Roth, T H Terrill, R M Kaplan, M Larsen, O M Samples, J E Miller, S Gelaye, C V Terwissen, G F Mastromonaco, D L Murray, Susan M Thomas, Eric R Morgan, D.R. Tolleson, R.D. Randel, J.W. Stuth, D.a. Neuendorff, Hannah R. Trayford, Kay H. Farmer, Govindhaswamy Umapathy, Vinod Kumar

Research output: Chapter in BookChapterResearchpeer-review

Abstract

We investigated the impact of enclosure size and animal density on behavior and adrenocortical secretion in Père David's deer in Dafeng Nature Reserve, China. From February 15 to April 16 in 2004, we conducted two experiments. First, we studied maintenance behavior and conflict behavior of Père David's deer stags in a large enclosure (200 ha) with low animal density (0.66 deer/ha) and a small display pen (0.75 ha) with high animal density (25.33 deer/ha). The maintenance behavior we recorded included standing, locomotion, foraging and rest. During the behavioral observations, we collected fresh voided fecal samples from the stags periodically, and analyzed the fecal cortisol concentrations in those samples using radioimmunoassay technique. Second, we monitored the fecal cortisol concentrations of one group of stags (12 deer lived in an enclosure of 100 ha) before and after transferred into a small pen (0.5 ha). We found that in the first experiment: (1) there were significant differences in standing and rest whereas no significant differences of locomotion and foraging between the free-ranging group and the display group; (2) frequency of conflict behavior in the display group was significantly higher than those in the free-ranging group; and (3) fecal cortisol concentration of the display group (326.17+/-16.98 ng/g dry feces) was significantly higher than that of the free-ranging group (268.98+/-15.21 ng/g dry feces). In the second experiment, there was no significant difference of the fecal cortisol concentrations among sampling days, but the mean fecal cortisol concentration of the day after transferring (337.46+/-17.88 ng/g dry feces) was significantly higher than that of the day before transferring (248.44+/-7.99 ng/g dry feces). Comparison with published findings, our results indicated that enclosure size and animal density affect not only behaviors, but also adrenocortical secretion in Père David's deer. Small living space with high animal density may impose physiological stress to captive Père David's deer. Moreover, long-term physiological stress and increase of conflict behavior may subsequently affect survival and reproduction of the deer.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationGeneral and comparative endocrinology
Pages202-9
Number of pages8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2013

Publication series

NameGeneral and comparative endocrinology
Volume34

Keywords

  • 0168-1591
  • 2004 elsevier b
  • 44 1204 903647
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  • Molecular
  • Molecular Probe Techniques
  • Molecular Probe Techniques: economics
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Moniliformis
  • Monkey Diseases
  • Monkey Diseases: parasitology
  • Monotremata
  • Monotremata: anatomy & histology
  • Monozygotic
  • Mood Disorders
  • Mood Disorders: epidemiology
  • Mood Disorders: pathology
  • Mood Disorders: psychology
  • Motor Activity
  • Mouth Mucosa
  • Mouth Mucosa: metabolism
  • Mouth Mucosa: microbiology
  • Natural antibodies
  • Nematoda
  • Nematoda: classification
  • Nematoda: growth & development
  • Nematoda: immunology
  • Nematoda: isolation & purification
  • Nematoda: physiology
  • Nematode Infections
  • Nematode Infections: diagnosis
  • Nematode Infections: parasitology
  • Nervous System
  • Nervous System: physiopathology
  • Neurosecretory Systems
  • Neurosecretory Systems: physiology
  • Neutrophils
  • Neutrophils: pathology
  • New Orleans
  • Newborn
  • Newborn: psychology
  • Non-invasive monitoring
  • Nonlinear Dynamics
  • Nonparametric
  • Norepinephrine
  • Norepinephrine: metabolism
  • North America
  • Nuclear Transfer Techniques
  • Nuclear Transfer Techniques: veterinary
  • Object Attachment
  • Occipital Lobe
  • Occipital Lobe: growth & development
  • Occipital Lobe: pathology
  • Octodon
  • Octodon: metabolism
  • Octodon: physiology
  • Oesophagostomum
  • Oesophagostomum: growth & development
  • Operant
  • Oryctolagus cuniculus
  • Osmolar Concentration
  • Ostertagia
  • Ostertagia: growth & development
  • Ovulation Inhibition
  • Ovulation Inhibition: physiology
  • Oxytocin
  • Oxytocin: administration & dosage
  • Oxytocin: physiology
  • Oxytocin: secretion
  • Pair Bond
  • Pan paniscus
  • Pan troglodytes
  • Pan troglodytes: growth & development
  • Panic Disorder
  • Panic Disorder: chemically induced
  • Panthera
  • Papio
  • Parasite Egg Count
  • Parasite Egg Count: veterinary
  • Parasite transmission
  • Parasitic Diseases
  • Parent-Child Relations
  • Paternal Deprivation
  • Perception
  • Perception: physiology
  • Perissodactyla
  • Perissodactyla: metabolism
  • Perissodactyla: physiology
  • Phagocytosis
  • Phagocytosis: physiology
  • Photoperiod
  • Phylogeny
  • Physiological
  • Physiological: diagnosis
  • Physiological: drug effects
  • Physiological: etiology
  • Physiological: genetics
  • Physiological: metabolism
  • Physiological: physiology
  • Physiological: physiopathology
  • Physiological: psychology
  • Physiological: veterinary
  • Pilot Projects
  • Piperazines
  • Piperazines: pharmacology
  • Pituitary Gland
  • Pituitary-Adrenal System
  • Pituitary-Adrenal System: drug effects
  • Pituitary-Adrenal System: embryology
  • Pituitary-Adrenal System: metabolism
  • Pituitary-Adrenal System: physiology
  • Pituitary-Adrenal System: physiopathology
  • Placebos
  • Plasma Membrane Neurotransmitter Transport Protein
  • Platyhelminths
  • Platyhelminths: classification
  • Platyhelminths: isolation & purification
  • Poisson Distribution
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction: methods
  • Polymorphism
  • Pongo pygmaeus
  • Pongo pygmaeus: genetics
  • Pongo pygmaeus: growth & development
  • Pongo pygmaeus: physiology
  • Population Control
  • Population Control: methods
  • Population Density
  • Positron-Emission Tomography
  • Post-Traumatic
  • Post-Traumatic: complications
  • Post-Traumatic: diagnosis
  • Post-Traumatic: epidemiology
  • Post-Traumatic: metabolism
  • Post-Traumatic: prevention & con
  • Post-Traumatic: psychology
  • Post-Traumatic: therapy
  • Posterior
  • Posterior: secretion
  • Postpartum Period
  • Postpartum Period: metabolism
  • Postpartum Period: physiology
  • Postpartum Period: psychology
  • Poultry
  • Prednisolone
  • Prednisolone: urine
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications
  • Pregnancy Complications: physiopathology
  • Pregnancy Complications: psychology
  • Pregnancy Proteins
  • Pregnancy Proteins: analysis
  • Pregnancy Proteins: metabolism
  • Pregnancy Tests
  • Pregnancy Tests: methods
  • Pregnanolone
  • Pregnanolone: analysis
  • Pregnanolone: immunology
  • Pregnanolone: metabolism
  • Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
  • Preschool
  • Preservation
  • Prevalence
  • Primates
  • Primates: metabolism
  • Primates: parasitology
  • Primates: psychology
  • Progesterone
  • Progesterone: blood
  • Progesterone: immunology
  • Progesterone: metabolism
  • Progestins
  • Progestins: analysis
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
  • Psychological
  • Psychological: blood
  • Psychological: complications
  • Psychological: diagnosis
  • Psychological: genetics
  • Psychological: metabolism
  • Psychological: microbiology
  • Psychological: pathology
  • Psychological: physiology
  • Psychological: physiopathology
  • Psychological: psychology
  • Questionnaires
  • Radiation
  • Radioimmunoassay
  • Radioimmunoassay: methods
  • Radiopharmaceuticals
  • Radiopharmaceuticals: diagnostic use
  • Random Allocation
  • Rats
  • Receptivity
  • Receptor
  • Receptors
  • Recurrence
  • Recurrence: prevention & control
  • Reference Values
  • Reflex
  • Refrigeration
  • Refrigeration: adverse effects
  • Refrigeration: veterinary
  • Regression Analysis
  • Reindeer
  • Reindeer: metabolism
  • Reindeer: physiology
  • Repeatability
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Reproduction
  • Reproduction: drug effects
  • Reproduction: physiology
  • Reproductive
  • Reproductive Techniques
  • Reproductive: methods
  • Reproductive: veterinary
  • Reptile
  • Resilience
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Rodentia
  • Rodentia: metabolism
  • Rupicapra
  • Rupicapra: parasitology
  • Rupicapra: physiology
  • Saliva
  • Saliva: chemistry
  • Saliva: enzymology
  • Saliva: metabolism
  • Saliva: microbiology
  • Saliva: physiology
  • Salivary alpha-Amylases
  • Salivary alpha-Amylases: metabolism
  • Sampling Studies
  • Sea Lions
  • Seasons
  • Secretory Rate
  • Selection
  • Semen Preservation
  • Seminal bacteriology
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Serotonin
  • Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins
  • Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: gene
  • Serotonin: metabolism
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Sex Factors
  • Sex Ratio
  • Sexual
  • Sexual Behavior
  • Sexual Maturation
  • Sexual Maturation: physiology
  • Sexual: psychology
  • Sexual: rehabilitation
  • Sheep
  • Sheep Diseases
  • Sheep Diseases: blood
  • Sheep Diseases: diagnosis
  • Sheep Diseases: immunology
  • Sheep Diseases: parasitology
  • Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders
  • Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders: blood
  • Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders: psycho
  • Social Behavior
  • Social Environment
  • Social Isolation
  • Social network
  • Sociality
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Sodium Chloride
  • Sodium Chloride: pharmacology
  • Solid Phase Extraction
  • Solid Phase Extraction: methods
  • Songbirds
  • Songbirds: physiology
  • Species Specificity
  • Specimen Handling
  • Specimen Handling: methods
  • Specimen Handling: veterinary
  • Spectrometry
  • Speech
  • Sperm morphology
  • Statistics
  • Sterilization
  • Steroids
  • Steroids: metabolism
  • Stress
  • Stress Disorders
  • Stress reactivity
  • Stress response
  • Strigiformes
  • Substance-Related Disorders
  • Substance-Related Disorders: epidemiology
  • Substance-Related Disorders: etiology
  • Substance-Related Disorders: genetics
  • Substance-Related Disorders: physiopathology
  • Substance-Related Disorders: psychology
  • Superoxides
  • Superoxides: blood
  • Survival
  • Survivors
  • Survivors: psychology
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry
  • Temperature
  • Testosterone
  • Testosterone: analysis
  • Testosterone: blood
  • Testosterone: metabolism
  • Thyroid Hormones
  • Thyroid Hormones: analysis
  • Thyroidal activity
  • Thyroxine
  • Thyroxine: analysis
  • Tiger (Panthera tigris)
  • Time
  • Time Factors
  • Tissue and Organ Harvesting
  • Tissue and Organ Harvesting: methods
  • Tissue and Organ Harvesting: veterinary
  • Translocation
  • Transportation
  • Trichostrongylus
  • Trichostrongylus: growth & development
  • Triiodothyronine
  • Triiodothyronine: analysis
  • Tuberculosis
  • Tuberculosis: physiopathology
  • Twinning
  • Two-Dimensional
  • Two-Dimensional: methods
  • Two-Dimensional: veterinary
  • United States
  • United States: epidemiology
  • Urine
  • Urine: microbiology
  • Ursidae
  • Ursidae: metabolism
  • Ursidae: physiology
  • Validation Studies as Topic
  • Vasopressin
  • Vasopressin: genetics
  • Vasopressin: metabolism
  • Vasopressins
  • Vasopressins: blood
  • Vasopressins: metabolism
  • Vasopressins: pharmacology
  • Vasopressins: urine
  • Venoms
  • Venoms: chemistry
  • Venoms: pharmacology
  • Video Recording
  • Video Recording: methods
  • Wakefulness
  • Welfare
  • Whale
  • Wild
  • Wild: physiology
  • Wistar
  • Wolves
  • Yohimbine
  • Yohimbine: pharmacology
  • Young Adult
  • Zoo
  • Zoo: metabolism
  • Zoo: physiology
  • Zoonoses
  • ac
  • all rights reserved
  • altitude
  • animal interactions
  • anthropogenic disturbance
  • anticipatory stress
  • antisocial personality disorder
  • baboons
  • baseline corticosterone
  • beta-adrenergic blockade
  • bolton
  • cage space
  • canis
  • captive
  • captive animals
  • childhood abuse
  • cold pressor
  • corticosterone
  • cortisol
  • deception
  • detection
  • e-mail address
  • early adverse experiences
  • early life adversity
  • emotion
  • endocrine disruptors
  • estrogen
  • eumelanin
  • faecal corticosterone metabolites
  • faecal steroids
  • faeces
  • fallow deer
  • fecal glucocorticoid metabolites
  • fecal glucocorticoids
  • fecal steroids
  • field storage
  • fnirs
  • formance
  • fundamental frequency
  • gender
  • gh2
  • glucocorticoid
  • glucocorticoids
  • glutamate
  • guilt
  • habitat fragmentation
  • hogesterone metabolites
  • hormone
  • human
  • hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis
  • intestinal parasites
  • jitter
  • lutra lutra
  • malaysia
  • menstrual cycle
  • mirror image stimulation test
  • molecular tracking
  • monitoring after release
  • n -acetyl- l -aspar-
  • near infrared reflectance spectroscopy
  • neurohumoral
  • non-invasive monitoring
  • noninvasive
  • odocoileus virginianus
  • oestrogens
  • olol
  • panthera tigris
  • papio
  • parasites
  • per-
  • pheomelanin
  • physiological stress response
  • physiology
  • pilot
  • population
  • primates
  • progesterone
  • propran-
  • rearing
  • red deer
  • reproductive
  • sampling protocol
  • see front matter
  • shimmer
  • stereotypic behavior
  • stress
  • sympathetic nervous system
  • tate
  • tel
  • testosterone
  • tiger
  • tremor
  • uk
  • upper respiratory tract
  • v
  • variability
  • variable foraging demand
  • visitors
  • voice
  • welfare
  • wild comparison
  • zoo animals
  • zoological gardens

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