The resistance pattern observed in the antibiogram of an isolate should be the sum of its natural resistance pattern, characteristic of the species, plus the acquired resistances. In Enterobacteriaceae, the production of inactivating enzymes is the main mechanism of resistance to beta-lactams and aminoglycosides. Each one of these enzymes recognizes one or more specific beta-lactams or aminoglycosides as substrate. This substrate specificity implies a specific resistance pattern from which we can deduce the enzymes present in the isolate. However, enzymatic-mediated resistance is not the only mechanism implicated and resistance is frequently multifactorial. Resistance to quinolones is mainly due to precise, sequential chromosomal mutations that can be selected by fluoroquinolone treatments. Recently, certain plasmid-mediated genes which code enzymes that modify quinolones or that are target protectors have been implicated in the low level resistance to quinolones. © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
- Resistance mechanisms
- Susceptibility studies