BACKGROUND: There is limited research on the interaction of both positive and negative daily-life environments with stress-related genetic variants on psychotic experiences (PEs) and negative affect (NA) across the extended psychosis phenotype. This study examined whether the FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5) variability moderates the association of positive and negative experiences in the moment with PEs and NA in participants with incipient psychosis and their nonclinical counterparts.
METHODS: A total of 233 nonclinical and 86 incipient psychosis participants were prompted for a 1-week period to assess their day-to-day experiences. Participants were genotyped for four FKBP5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs3800373, rs9296158, rs1360780, and rs9470080).
RESULTS: Multilevel analyses indicated that, unlike the risk haplotype, the protective FKBP5 haplotype moderated all the associations of positive experiences with diminished PEs and NA in incipient psychosis compared with nonclinical group.
CONCLUSIONS: Participants with incipient psychosis showed symptomatic improvement when reporting positive appraisals in the interpersonal domain, which suggests that these act as a powerful coping mechanism. The fact that this occurred in daily-life underscores the clinical significance of this finding and pinpoints the importance of identifying protective mechanisms. In addition, results seem to concur with the vantage sensitivity model of gene-environment interaction, which poses that certain genetic variants may enhance the likelihood of benefiting from positive exposures.
- Adaptation, Psychological
- Gene-Environment Interaction
- Life Change Events
- Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics
- Psychotic Disorders/genetics
- Severity of Illness Index
- Tacrolimus Binding Proteins/metabolism