The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae grows far better at acidic than at neutral or alkaline pH. Consequently, even a modest alkalinization of the medium represents a stressful situation for this yeast. In the past few years, data generated by a combination of genome-wide techniques has demonstrated that adaptive responses of S. cerevisiae to high pH stress involves extensive gene remodeling as a result of the fast activation of a number of stress-related signaling pathways, such as the Rim101, the Wsc1-Pkc1-Slt2 MAP kinase, and the calcium-activated calcineurin pathways. Alkalinization of the environment also disturbs nutrient homeostasis, as deduced from its impact on iron/copper, phosphate, and glucose uptake/utilization pathways. In this review we will examine these responses, their possible interactions, and the role that they play in tolerance to high pH stress. © 2010, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2010.