A bridge-shaped first-lateral-mode 60-MHz mechanical resonator, which is monolithically integrated with capacitive CMOS readout electronics, is presented. The resonator is fabricated directly on a commercial CMOS technology using the top metal level as a structural layer. A maskless single-step wet-etching process for mechanical structure release after the standard CMOS integration process is the only postfabrication requirement. Electrical characterization of the electromechanical device demonstrates the feasibility of implementing a CMOS-microelectromechanical system for high-frequency applications using a standard conventional CMOS technology. © 2006 IEEE.
- CMOS-microelectromechanical system (MEMS)
- High-frequency resonators
- Integrated resonators
- Mechanical resonators