© Annals of Translational Medicine. The defining features of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are an excessive inflammatory respiratory response associated with high morbidity and mortality. Treatment consists mainly of measures to avoid worsening lung injury and cannot reverse the underlying pathophysiological process. New pharmacological agents have shown promising results in preclinical studies; however, they have not been successfully translated to patients with ARDS. The lack of effective therapeutic interventions has resulted in a recent interest in strategies to prevent ARDS with treatments delivering medications directly to the lungs by inhalation and nebulization, hopefully minimizing systemic adverse events. We analyzed the effect of different aerosolized drugs such as bronchodilators, corticosteroids, pulmonary vasodilators, anticoagulants, mucolytics and surfactant. New therapeutic strategies and ongoing trials using carbon monoxide (CO) and AP301 peptide are also briefly reviewed.
- Acute lung injury (ALI)
- Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)