Infective Endocarditis in Patients With Bicuspid Aortic Valve or Mitral Valve Prolapse

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Abstract

Background: There is little information concerning infective endocarditis (IE) in patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) or mitral valve prolapse (MVP). Currently, IE antibiotic prophylaxis (IEAP) is not recommended for these conditions. Objectives: This study sought to describe the clinical and microbiological features of IE in patients with BAV and MVP and compare them with those of IE patients with and without IEAP indication, to determine the potential benefit of IEAP in these conditions. Methods: This analysis involved 3,208 consecutive IE patients prospectively included in the GAMES (Grupo de Apoyo al Manejo de la Endocarditis infecciosa en España) registry at 31 Spanish hospitals. Patients were classified as high-risk IE with IEAP indication (high-risk group; n = 1,226), low- and moderate-risk IE without IEAP indication (low/moderate-risk group; n = 1,839), and IE with BAV (n = 54) or MVP (n = 89). Results: BAV and MVP patients had a higher incidence of viridans group streptococci IE than did high-risk group and low/moderate-risk group patients (35.2% and 39.3% vs. 12.1% and 15.0%, respectively; all p < 0.01). A similar pattern was seen for IE from suspected odontologic origin (14.8% and 18.0% vs. 5.8% and 6.0%; all p < 0.01). BAV and MVP patients had more intracardiac complications than did low/moderate-risk group (50% and 47.2% vs. 30.6%, both p < 0.01) patients and were similar to high-risk group patients. Conclusions: IE in patients with BAV and MVP have higher rates of viridans group streptococci IE and IE from suspected odontologic origin than in other IE patients, with a clinical profile similar to that of high-risk IE patients. Our findings suggest that BAV and MVP should be classified as high-risk IE conditions and the case for IEAP should be reconsidered.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2731-2740
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Volume71
Issue number24
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 19 Jun 2018

Keywords

  • antibiotic prophylaxis
  • bicuspid aortic valve
  • endocarditis
  • mitral valve prolapse

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