The epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) has dramatically changed over the last decade in both North America and Europe, and it has become more frequent, more severe, more refractory to standard therapy, and more likely to relapse. These changes have been associated with the emergence of a "hypervirulent" strain known as BI/NAP1/027 which has become endemic in some areas, although, other hypervirulent genotypes (e.g. PCR ribotype 078) have also been described. To reduce the incidence of CDIs, the diagnostic guidelines on diagnosis and treatment methods have been recently updated. The aim of this review is to highlight the recent epidemiological data on CDIs and to provide an overview of the pathogenicity of the infection, diagnostic approaches, old and new treatment options, and current knowledge of infection control measures. © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
- Clostridium difficile infection