Objective: People living with HIV (PLWH) have an increased cardiovascular risk (CVR) owing to dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and HIV/combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-associated lipodystrophy (HALS). Atherosclerosis and inflammation are related to growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF15). The relationship between metabolic disturbances, HALS, and CVR with GDF15 in PLWH is not known. Research design and methods: Circulating GDF15 levels in 152 PLWH (with HALS = 60, without HALS = 43, cART-naive = 49) and 34 healthy controls were assessed in a cross-sectional study. Correlations with lipids, glucose homeostasis, fat distribution, and CVR were explored. Results: PLWH had increased circulating GDF15 levels relative to controls. The increase was the largest in cART-treated PLWH. Age, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance 1 (HOMA1-IR), HALS, dyslipidemia, C-reactive protein, and CVR estimated with the Framingham score correlated with GDF15 levels. The GDF15-Framingham correlation was lost after age adjustment. No correlation was found between GDF15 and the D:A:D Data Collection on Adverse Effects of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) score estimated CVR. CVR independent predictors were patient group (naive, HALS-, and HALS+) and cumulated protease inhibitor or nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor exposure. Conclusions: PLWH, especially when cART-treated, has increased GDF15 levels-this increase is associated with dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, HALS, and inflammation-related parameters. GDF15 is unassociated with CVR when age-adjusted.
|Number of pages||13|
|Journal||Journal of Clinical Medicine|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Feb 2022|
- Cardiovascular risk
- Insulin resistance
- Metabolic syndrome