Increased brain expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 after ischemic and hemorrhagic human stroke

Anna Rosell, Arantxa Ortega-Aznar, José Alvarez-Sabín, Israel Fernández-Cadenas, Marc Ribó, Carlos A. Molina, Eng H. Lo, Joan Montaner

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353 Citations (Scopus)


BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE - Abnormal expression of some matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) has shown to play a deleterious role in brain injury in experimental models of cerebral ischemia. We aimed to investigate MMP-2 (gelatinase A) and MMP-9 (gelatinase B) in brain parenchyma in both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. METHODS - Postmortem fresh brain tissue from 6 ischemic and 8 hemorrhagic stroke patients was obtained within the first 6 hours after death. Finally, 78 brain tissue samples from different areas (infarct, peri-infarct, perihematoma and contralateral hemisphere) were studied. To quantify gelatinase content we performed gelatin zymograms that were confirmed by Western Blot Analysis, immunohistochemistry to localize MMP source, and in situ zymography to detect gelatinase activity. RESULTS - Among ischemic cases, gelatin zymography showed increased MMP-9 content in infarct core although peri-infarct tissue presented also higher levels than contralateral hemisphere (P<0.0001 and P=0.042, respectively). Within infarct core, MMP-9 was mainly located around blood vessels, associated to neutrophil infiltration and activated microglial cells. In peri-infarct areas the major source of MMP-9 were microglial cells. Tissue around intracranial hemorrhage also displayed higher MMP-9 levels than contralateral hemisphere (P=0.008) in close relationship with glial cells. MMP-2 was constitutively expressed and remained invariable in different brain areas. CONCLUSIONS - Our results demonstrate in situ higher levels of MMP-9 in human brain tissue after ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, suggesting a contribution of MMP-9 to ischemic brain injury and perihematoma edema. ©2006 American Heart Association, Inc.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1399-1406
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2006


  • MMP-2
  • MMP-9
  • Stroke


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