© The Author(s) 2018. Currently, Papanicolaou smears are proposed at three-year intervals for cervical screening to all women living with HIV. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to provide data on the incidence of cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) in cervical smear confirmed by histology in HIV-1-infected women (two consecutive normal Papanicolaou smears at baseline) after a long-term follow-up. Sixty-seven women (recruited between March 1999 and January 2003) were analyzed. The median period of follow-up was 13.2 years (range: 7.4–17.1 years) with a total of 583 Papanicolaou smears. Twenty-seven percent of these HIV-1-infected women had poorly-controlled HIV. Cumulative incidence of HSIL was 18% (12/67; 95%CI: 11–29%) of which one was an invasive squamous cell carcinoma and two were carcinoma in situ. These women had not been well-engaged with the annual Papanicolaou smear screening program and had poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Development of HSIL was associated with high-risk-HPV infection (OR: 14.9; 95%CI: 3.0, 75.1). At last Papanicolaou smear, prevalence of high-risk-HPV infection was 30% (20/66, 95%CI: 21–42%). In conclusion, the incidence of cervical HSIL in HIV-1-infected women with poor antiretroviral therapy adherence or poor immunological status reinforces the need to identify those HIV-1-infected women at risk of developing cervical cancer.
- Cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions