The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of ultrahigh-pressure homogenization (UHPH) for inactivation and/or sublethal injury of two strains of Escherichia coli (O58:H21 ATCC 10536 and O157:H7 CCUG 44857) inoculated into orange juice (pH 3.6). The effects of orange juice inlet temperature (6 and 20°C) on the lethality values and the capacity of these strains for survival, repair, and growth during refrigerated storage after UHPH treatment also was evaluated. Samples of orange juice that had been treated with ultrahigh temperatures were inoculated with E. coli in the stationary phase of growth until a final concentration of approximately 7.0 log CFU/ml was reached. These samples were then treated for one cycle with a double-valve UHPH machine, with 300 MPa at the primary homogenizing valve and 30 MPa at the secondary valve. Counts of viable and injured bacterial cells were obtained for samples taken 2 h after UHPH treatment and after 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 27, and 33 days of storage at 4°C. The inlet temperature and the strain type both influenced significantly (P < 0.05) the lethality effect on E. coli, which was higher when the inlet temperature was 20°C. No sublethal injuries were detected after any treatment. The changes in viable counts over time for both strains in pressurized and control samples were similar. The viable counts remained high from day 0 to day 18 and then tended to decrease. After 27 days of storage at 4°C, E. coli O157: H7 was more resistant in orange juice samples pressurized at inlet temperatures of 6 and 20°C, with viable counts of 3.41 and 3.20 log CFU/ml, respectively. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection.