Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited recessive DNA repair disorder mainly characterized by bone marrow failure and cancer predisposition. Studies in mosaic FA patients have shown that reversion of one inherited germ-line mutation resulting in a functional allele in one or a few hemato-poietic stem cells (HSCs) can lead to the proliferation advantage of corrected cells, thus over time normalizing the hemato-logic status of the patient. In contrast to these observations, it is still unclear whether ex vivo genetic correction of FA HSCs also provides a similar proliferation advantage to FA HSCs. Using an FA mouse model with a marked hematopoietic phenotype, the FA-D1 (Brca Δ27/Δ27) mice, we demonstrate that the lentivirus-mediated gene therapy of FA HSCs results in the progressive expansion of genetically corrected clones in mild-conditioned FA-D1 recipients. Consistent with these data, hematopoietic progenitors from FA recipients progressively became mitomycin C resistant and their chromosomal instability was reverted. No evidence of myelodysplasia, leukemias, or abnormal clonal repopulation was observed at multiple time points in primary or secondary recipients. Our results demonstrate that ectopic expression of BRCA2 confers a beneficial in vivo proliferation advantage to FA-D1 HSCs that enables the full hematopoietic repopula-tion of FA recipients with genetically corrected cells. © 2008 by The American Society of Hematology.