In vitro cytotoxicity and mitochondrial toxicity of tenofovir alone and in combination with other antiretrovirals in human renal proximal tubule cells

Francesc Vidal, Joan Carles Domingo, Jordi Guallar, Maria Saumoy, Begoña Cordobilla, Rainel Sánchez De La Rosa, Marta Giralt, Maria Luisa Álvarez, Miguel López-Dupla, Ferran Torres, Francesc Villarroya, Tomas Cihlar, Pere Domingo

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Abstract

We assessed the in vitro toxicity of tenofimr (TFV) and compared it with those of zidovudine (AZT), didanosine (ddI), ritonavir (RTV) and lopinavir (LPV) alone and in combination in human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTECs). The cells were treated with various concentrations and combinations of the tested antiretrovirals for up to 22 days, and cytotoxicity was determined. In addition, we assessed the levels of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and cytochrome oxidase II (COII) mRNA in RPTECs treated with reverse transcriptase inhibitors. TFV alone was not associated with significant cytotoxicity. ddI showed pronounced cytotoxicity that was greater than those of AZT (P = 0.002) and TFV (P = 0.0001). The combination of 10 μM RTV and 40 μM LPV significantly reduced RPTEC viability (P < 0.0001), and TFV tended to partially reduce this effect. TFV alone affected neither mtDNA nor COII mRNA levels, whereas ddI caused a profound depletion of mtDNA and a parallel reduction in COII mRNA expression. The effects of ddI, but not those of AZT, on mtDNA and COII mRNA were further enhanced in the presence of TFV, a finding consistent with the inhibition of ddI clearance by TFV. The addition of TFV to ddI or AZT appeared to slightly increase the COII mRNA/mtDNA ratio relative to that in cells treated with ddI or AZT alone. Together, these in vitro results indicate that combination with other antiretrovirals does not significantly increase the toxic potential of TFV in RPTECs. Copyright © 2006, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3824-3832
JournalAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Volume50
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2006

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    Vidal, F., Domingo, J. C., Guallar, J., Saumoy, M., Cordobilla, B., Sánchez De La Rosa, R., Giralt, M., Álvarez, M. L., López-Dupla, M., Torres, F., Villarroya, F., Cihlar, T., & Domingo, P. (2006). In vitro cytotoxicity and mitochondrial toxicity of tenofovir alone and in combination with other antiretrovirals in human renal proximal tubule cells. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 50, 3824-3832. https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00437-06