Improving patient discharge and reducing hospital readmissions by using Intervention Mapping

Gijs Hesselink, Marieke Zegers, Myrra Vernooij-Dassen, Paul Barach, Cor Kalkman, Maria Flink, Gunnar Öhlén, Mariann Olsson, Susanne Bergenbrant, Carola Orrego, Rosa Suñol, Giulio Toccafondi, Francesco Venneri, Ewa Dudzik-Urbaniak, Basia Kutryba, Lisette Schoonhoven, Hub Wollersheim

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© 2014 Hesselink et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Background: There is a growing impetus to reorganize the hospital discharge process to reduce avoidable readmissions and costs. The aim of this study was to provide insight into hospital discharge problems and underlying causes, and to give an overview of solutions that guide providers and policy-makers in improving hospital discharge. Methods: The Intervention Mapping framework was used. First, a problem analysis studying the scale, causes, and consequences of ineffective hospital discharge was carried out. The analysis was based on primary data from 26 focus group interviews and 321 individual interviews with patients and relatives, and involved hospital and community care providers. Second, improvements in terms of intervention outcomes, performance objectives and change objectives were specified. Third, 220 experts were consulted and a systematic review of effective discharge interventions was carried out to select theory-based methods and practical strategies required to achieve change and better performance. Results: Ineffective discharge is related to factors at the level of the individual care provider, the patient, the relationship between providers, and the organisational and technical support for care providers. Providers can reduce hospital readmission rates and adverse events by focusing on high-quality discharge information, wellcoordinated care, and direct and timely communication with their counterpart colleagues. Patients, or their carers, should participate in the discharge process and be well aware of their health status and treatment. Assessment by hospital care providers whether discharge information is accurate and understood by patients and their community counterparts, are important examples of overcoming identified barriers to effective discharge. Discharge templates, medication reconciliation, a liaison nurse or pharmacist, regular site visits and teach-back are identified as effective and promising strategies to achieve the desired behavioural and environmental change. Conclusions: This study provides a comprehensive guiding framework for providers and policy-makers to improve patient handover from hospital to primary care.
Original languageEnglish
Article number389
JournalBMC Health Services Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 13 Sep 2014


  • Adverse events
  • Intervention mapping
  • Patient discharge
  • Patient handoff
  • Patient readmission


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