© 2019 IOP Publishing Ltd. Because of its large Fermi velocity, leading to a great mobility, graphene is expected to play an important role in (small signal) radio frequency electronics. Among other developments, graphene devices based on Klein tunneling phenomena have already been envisioned. The connection between the Klein tunneling times of electrons and the cut-off frequencies of graphene devices is not obvious. We argue in this paper that the trajectory-based Bohmian approach gives a very natural framework to quantify Klein tunneling times in linear band graphene devices because of its ability to distinguish, not only between transmitted and reflected electrons, but also between reflected electrons that spend time in the barrier and those that do not. Without such a distinction, the typical expressions found in the literature to compute dwell times can give unphysical results when applied to the prediction of cut-off frequencies. In particular, we study Klein tunneling times for electrons in a two-terminal graphene device constituted by a potential barrier between two metallic contacts. We show that for a zero incident angle (and positive or negative kinetic energy), the transmission coefficient is equal to one, and the dwell time is roughly equal to the barrier distance divided by the Fermi velocity. For electrons incident with a non-zero angle smaller than the critical angle, the transmission coefficient decreases and dwell time can still be easily predicted in the Bohmian framework. The main conclusion of this work is that contrary to tunneling devices with parabolic bands, high graphene mobility is roughly independent of the presence of Klein tunneling phenomena in the active device region.
|Journal||Semiconductor Science and Technology|
|Publication status||Published - 6 Feb 2019|
- Bohmian mechanics
- Dirac equation
- Klein tunneling
- tunneling times