Impairment of pulmonary vascular reserve and right ventricular systolic reserve in pulmonary arterial hypertension

Enric Domingo, Juan C. Grignola, Rio Aguilar, Christian Arredondo, Nadia Bouteldja, Manuel L. Messeguer, Antonio Roman

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Abstract

Background: Exercise capacity is impaired in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We hypothesized that cardiovascular reserve abnormalities would be associated with impaired hemodynamic response to pharmacological stress and worse outcome in PAH.Methods: Eighteen PAH patients (p) group 1 NYHA class II/III and ten controls underwent simultaneous right cardiac catheterization and intravascular ultrasound at rest and during low dose-dobutamine (10 mcg/kg/min) with trendelenburg (DST). We estimated cardiac output (CO), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and capacitance (PC), and PA elastic modulus (EM). We concomitantly measured tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), RV myocardial peak systolic velocity (Sm) and isovolumic myocardial acceleration (IVA) in PAH patients. Based on the rounded mean + 2 SD of the increase in mPAP in our healthy control group during DST (2.8 + 1.8 mm Hg), PAH p were divided into two groups according to mean PA pressure (mPAP) response during DST, 1: ΔmPAP > 5 mm Hg and 2: ΔmPAP ≤ 5 mm Hg. Cardiovascular reserve was estimated as the change (delta, Δ) during DST compared with rest, including ΔmPAP with respect to ΔCO (ΔmPAP/ΔCO). All patients were prospectively followed up for 2 years.Results: PAH p showed significant lower heart rate and CO increase than controls during DST, with a significant mPAP and pulse PAP increase and higher ΔmPAP/ΔCO (p < 0.05). Neither hemodynamic, IVUS and echocardiographic data were different between both PAH groups at rest. In group 1, DST caused a higher ΔEM, ΔmPAP/ΔCO, ΔPVR, and ΔTAPSE than group 2, with a lower IVA increase and a negative ΔSV (p < 0.05). TAPSE correlated with mPAP and RVP (p < 0.05) and, IVA and Sm correlated with CO (p < 0.05). ΔEM correlated with ΔmPAP and ΔIVA with ΔCO (p < 0.05). There were two deaths/pulmonary transplantations in group 1 and one death in group 2 during the follow-up (p > 0.05).Conclusions: Pulmonary vascular reserve and RV systolic reserve are significantly impaired in patients with PAH. The lower recruitable cardiovascular reserve is significantly related to a worse hemodynamic response to DST and it could be associated with a poor clinical outcome. © 2014 Domingo et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Original languageEnglish
Article number69
JournalBMC Pulmonary Medicine
Volume14
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 24 Apr 2014

Keywords

  • Cardiovascular reserve
  • Dobutamine
  • Echocardiography
  • IVUS
  • Pulmonary hypertension

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