Impact of temperature on the resistive switching behavior of embedded HfO<inf>2</inf>-based RRAM devices

Christian Walczyk, Damian Walczyk, Thomas Schroeder, Thomas Bertaud, Małgorzata Sowińska, Mindaugas Lukosius, Mirko Fraschke, Dirk Wolansky, Bernd Tillack, Enrique Miranda, Christian Wenger

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Back-end-of-line integrated 1 × 1 μm2 TiN/HfO 2/Ti/TiN MIM memory devices in a 0.25-μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology were built to investigate the conduction mechanism and the resistive switching behavior as a function of temperature. The temperature-dependent I-V characteristics in fresh devices are attributed to the Poole-Frenkel mechanism with an extracted trap energy level at φ ≈ 0.2 eV below the HfO2 conduction band. The trap level is associated with positively charged oxygen vacancies. The electroformed memory cells show a stable bipolar switching behavior in the temperature range from 213-413 K. The off -state current increases with temperature, whereas the on-state current can be described by a weak metallic behavior. Furthermore, the results suggest that the I-V cycling not only induces significant changes in the electrical properties of the MIM memory devices, i.e., the increase in the OFF-state current, but also stronger temperature dependence. The temperature effect on the ON-state and OFF-state characteristics is modeled within the framework of the quantum point-contact model for dielectric breakdown using an effective temperature-dependent confinement potential. © 2006 IEEE.
Original languageEnglish
Article number5948374
Pages (from-to)3124-3131
JournalIEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2011


  • Conduction process in virgin TiN/HfO /Ti/TiN memory cells 2
  • resistance-change random access memory (RRAM)
  • temperature dependence of the off-state and the on-state


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